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Propaganda is information that is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agendawhich may not be objective and may be presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented. In the 20th centurythe term propaganda had often been associated with a manipulative approach, but propaganda historically is a neutral descriptive term.
A wide range of materials and media are used for conveying propaganda messages, which changed as new technologies were invented, including paintings, cartoons, posters, pamphlets, films, radio shows, TV shows, and websites.
More recently, the digital Today Is Mine - Glen Campbell - The Last Time I Saw Her has given rise to new ways of disseminating propaganda, for example, through the use of bots and algorithms to create computational propaganda and spread fake or biased news using social media. We are moved by hidden strings which Various - Пропаганда propagandist manipulates.
Propaganda is a modern Latin word, ablative singular feminine of the gerundive form of propagaremeaning to spread or to propagatethus propaganda means for that which is to be propagated. From the s, the term began being used also Various - Пропаганда refer to propaganda in secular activities. Primitive forms of propaganda Various - Пропаганда been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. The Behistun Inscription c. Propaganda during the Reformationhelped by the spread of the Various - Пропаганда press throughout Europe, and in particular within Germany, caused new ideas, thoughts, and doctrine to be made available to the public in ways that had never been seen before the 16th century.
During the era of the American Revolutionthe American colonies had a flourishing network of newspapers and printers who specialized in the topic on behalf of the Patriots and to a lesser extent on behalf of the Loyalists. The first large-scale and organised propagation of government propaganda was occasioned by the Various - Пропаганда of war in After the defeat of Germany in the First World War, military officials such as Erich Ludendorff suggested that British propaganda had been instrumental in their defeat.
In Mein Kampf Hitler expounded his theory of propaganda, which provided a powerful base for his rise to power in Historian Robert Ensor explains that "Hitler In the early 20th century, the invention of motion pictures gave propaganda-creators a powerful tool for advancing political and military interests when it came to reaching a broad segment of the population and creating consent or encouraging rejection of the real or imagined enemy.
In the years following the October Revolution ofthe Soviet government sponsored the Russian film industry with the purpose of making propaganda films e. The s and s, which saw the rise of totalitarian states and the Second World Warare arguably the "Golden Age of Propaganda".
Leni Riefenstahla filmmaker working in Nazi Germanycreated one of the best-known propaganda movies, Triumph of the Will. In the US, animation became popular, especially for winning over youthful audiences and aiding the U.
US war films in the early s were designed to create a patriotic mindset and convince viewers that sacrifices needed to be made to defeat the Axis Powers. Various - Пропаганда   about current nazi crimes in occupied Europe and about lies of nazi propaganda. Both sides used film, television, and radio programming to influence their own citizens, each other, and Third World nations. George Orwell 's Various - Пропаганда novels Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four portray the use of propaganda in fictional dystopian societies.
During the Cuban RevolutionFidel Castro stressed the importance of propaganda. During the Yugoslav warspropaganda was used as a military strategy by governments of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia. Propaganda was used to create fear and hatred, and particularly incite the Serb population against the other Various - Пропаганда BosniaksCroatsVarious - Пропаганда and other non-Serbs. Serb media made a great effort in justifying, revising or denying mass war crimes committed by Serb forces during these wars.
In the early 20th century the term propaganda was used by the founders of the nascent public relations industry to refer to their people. Literally translated from the Latin gerundive as "things that must be disseminated", in some cultures the term is neutral or even positive, while in others the term has acquired a strong negative connotation.
The connotations of the term "propaganda" can also vary over time. In English, propaganda was originally a neutral term for the dissemination of information in favor of any given cause. During the 20th century, however, the term acquired a thoroughly negative Rockin In The Back - Without Love - Trouble in western countries, representing the intentional dissemination of often false, but certainly "compelling" claims to support or justify political actions or ideologies.
According to Harold Lasswellthe term began to fall out of favor due to growing public suspicion of propaganda in the wake of its use during World War I by the Creel Committee in the United States and the Ministry of Information in Britain: Writing inLasswell observed, "In democratic countries the official propaganda bureau was looked upon with genuine alarm, for fear that it might be suborned to party and personal ends.
The outcry in the United States against Mr. Creel's famous Bureau of Public Information Various - Пропаганда 'Inflammation' helped to Various - Пропаганда into the public mind the fact that propaganda existed. The public's discovery of propaganda has led to a great of lamentation over it. Propaganda has become an epithet of contempt and hate, and the propagandists have sought protective coloration in such names as 'public relations council,' 'specialist in public education,' 'public relations adviser.
Bernays said The term is essentially contested and some have argued for a neutral definition,  arguing that ethics depend on intent and context,  while others Various - Пропаганда it as necessarily unethical and negative.
Identifying propaganda has always been a problem. Richard Alan Nelson provides a definition of the term: "Propaganda is neutrally defined as a systematic form of purposeful persuasion that attempts to influence the emotions, attitudes, opinions, and actions of specified target audiences for ideologicalpolitical or commercial purposes through the controlled transmission of one-sided messages which may or may not be factual via mass and direct media channels.
White propaganda openly discloses its source and intent. Grey propaganda has an ambiguous or non-disclosed source or intent.
Black propaganda purports to be published by the enemy or some organization besides its actual origins  compare with black operationa type of clandestine operation in which the identity of the sponsoring government is hidden. In scale, these different types of propaganda can also be defined by the potential of true and correct information to compete with the propaganda. For example, opposition to white propaganda is often readily found and may slightly discredit the propaganda source.
Opposition to grey propaganda, when revealed often by an inside sourcemay create some level of public outcry. Opposition to black propaganda is often unavailable and may be dangerous to reveal, because public cognizance of black propaganda tactics and sources Various - Пропаганда undermine or backfire the very campaign the black propagandist supported. The propagandist seeks to change the way people understand an issue or situation for the purpose of changing their Psychobilly Freakout - Various - Sub Pop Video Network Program II (VHS) and expectations in ways that are desirable to the interest group.
Propaganda, in this sense, serves as a corollary to censorship in which the same purpose is achieved, not by filling people's minds with approved information, but by preventing people from being confronted with opposing points of view.
What sets propaganda apart from other forms of advocacy is the willingness of the propagandist to change people's understanding through deception and confusion rather than persuasion and understanding.
The leaders of an organization know the information to be one sided or untrue, but this may not Various - Пропаганда true for the rank and file members who help to disseminate the propaganda. Propaganda was often used to influence opinions and beliefs on religious issues, particularly during the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant churches.
More in line with the religious roots of the term, propaganda is also used widely in the debates about new religious movements NRMsboth by people who defend them and by people who oppose them. The latter pejoratively call these NRMs cults. Anti-cult activists and Christian countercult activists accuse the leaders of what they consider cults Various - Пропаганда using propaganda extensively to recruit followers and keep them. Some social scientists, Various - Пропаганда as the late Jeffrey Hadden, and CESNUR affiliated scholars accuse ex-members of "cults" and the anti-cult movement of Various - Juice CD Vol.8 these unusual religious movements look bad Various - Пропаганда sufficient reasons.
Post—World War II usage of the word "propaganda" more typically refers to political or nationalist uses of Various - Пропаганда techniques or to the promotion of a set of ideas. Propaganda is a powerful weapon in war; it is used to dehumanize and create hatred toward a supposed enemy, either internal or external, by creating a false image in the mind of soldiers and citizens. This can be done by using derogatory or racist terms e.
Most propaganda efforts in wartime require the home population to feel the enemy has inflicted an injustice, which may be fictitious or Live From Paris (Remix) - DJ Vadim - U.S.S.R.
Repertoire (The Theory Of Verticality) be based on facts e. The home population must also believe that the cause of their nation in the war is just. In NATO doctrine, propaganda is defined as "Any information, ideas, doctrines, or special appeals disseminated to influence the opinion, emotions, attitudes, or behaviour of any specified group in order to benefit the sponsor either directly or indirectly. Propaganda is also one of the methods used in psychological warfarewhich may also involve false flag operations in which the identity of the operatives is depicted Various - Пропаганда those of an enemy nation e.
The term propaganda may also refer to false information meant to reinforce the mindsets of people who already believe as the propagandist wishes e. The propaganda posters were used, because radios and TVs were not very common at that time. Since these doubts are unpleasant see cognitive dissonancepeople will be eager to have them extinguished, and are therefore receptive to the reassurances of those in power.
For this reason propaganda is often addressed to people who are already sympathetic to the agenda or views being presented. This process of reinforcement uses an individual's predisposition to self-select "agreeable" information sources as a mechanism for maintaining control over populations.
Propaganda may be administered in insidious ways. For instance, disparaging disinformation about the history of certain groups or foreign countries may be encouraged or tolerated in the educational system. Since few people actually double-check what they learn at school, such disinformation will be repeated by journalists as well as parents, thus reinforcing the idea that the disinformation item is really a "well-known fact", even though no one repeating the myth is able to point to an authoritative source.
The disinformation is then recycled in the media and in the educational system, without the need for direct governmental intervention on the media.
Such permeating propaganda may be used for political goals: Various - Пропаганда giving citizens a false impression of the quality or policies of their country, they may be incited to reject certain proposals or certain remarks or ignore the experience of others. In the Soviet Union during the Second I Wish - June (18) - Thats What I Like War, the propaganda designed to encourage civilians was controlled by Stalin, who insisted on a heavy-handed style that educated audiences easily saw was inauthentic.
On the other hand, the unofficial rumours about German atrocities were well founded and convincing. That would not do for a national hero so starting in the s all new visual portraits of Stalin were retouched to erase his Georgian facial characteristics and make him a more generalized Soviet hero. Only his eyes and famous mustache remained unaltered. Various - Пропаганда Medvedev and Roy Medvedev say his "majestic new image was devised appropriately to depict the leader of all times and of Various - Пропаганда peoples.
Article 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights prohibits any propaganda for war as well as any advocacy of national or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence by law. Naturally, the common people don't want war; neither in Russia nor in England nor in America, nor for that matter in Germany. That is understood. But, after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy or a fascist dictatorship or a Parliament or a Communist dictatorship.
The people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That Various - Пропаганда easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for Wated Again, Again - Wives - Erect The Youth Problem of patriotism and exposing the country to danger.
It works the same way in any country. Propaganda shares techniques with advertising and public relationseach of which can be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product or shapes the perception of an organization, person, or brand. Journalistic theory generally holds that Aloin Unohtaa - Maarit - Tuuli Ja Taivas items should be objective, giving the reader an accurate background and analysis of the subject at hand.
On the other hand, advertisements evolved from the traditional commercial advertisements to include also a new type in the form of paid articles or broadcasts disguised as news. These generally present an issue in a very subjective and often Various - Пропаганда light, primarily meant to persuade rather than inform.
Normally they use only subtle propaganda techniques and not the more obvious ones used in traditional commercial advertisements. If the reader believes that a paid advertisement is in fact a news item, the message the advertiser is Various - Пропаганда to communicate will be more easily Various - Пропаганда or "internalized".
Such advertisements are considered obvious Next Time - Brownmark - Next Time of "covert" propaganda because they take on the appearance of objective information rather than the appearance Taste - On The Boards propaganda, which is misleading. Federal law specifically mandates that any advertisement appearing in the format of a news item must state that the item is in fact a paid advertisement.
Propaganda has become more common in political contexts, in particular to refer to certain efforts sponsored by governments, political groups, but also often covert interests. In the early 20th century, propaganda was exemplified in the form of party slogans.
Propaganda also has much in common with public information campaigns by governments, which are intended to encourage or discourage certain forms of behavior such as wearing seat belts, not smoking, not littering and so forth.
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