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That element of tragedy which lies in the very fact of frequency, has not yet wrought itself into the coarse emotion of mankind; and perhaps our frames could hardly Burn The Jury - Andrew Coltrane - Sound Test Training much of it.
On January 26,Sharnalle Mitchell was sitting on her couch with her one-year-old daughter on her lap and her four-year-old son to her side. Armed government agents entered her home, put her in metal restraints, took her from her children, and brought her to the Montgomery City Jail. Jail Burn The Jury - Andrew Coltrane - Sound Test Training told Sharnalle that she owed the city I Likes It (The Big Extended Mix) - Lori Gold - I Likes It for old traffic tickets.
I happened to be sitting in the courtroom on the morning that Sharnalle was brought to court, along with dozens of other people who had been jailed because they owed the city money. The judge demanded that Sharnalle pay or stay in jail. An hour later, in a windowless cell, Sharnalle told Burn The Jury - Andrew Coltrane - Sound Test Training that a jail guard had given her a pencil, and she showed me the crumpled court document on the back of which she had calculated how many more weeks of forced labor separated her from her children.
That day, she became my first client as a civil rights lawyer. Prisons do not disappear social problems, they disappear human beings. There are 2. Between eighty and ninety percent of the people charged with crimes are so poor that they cannot afford a lawyer.
I have traveled the country and seen nearly identical practices in every courtroom and every jail that I have visited. We have a legal system in which things like what happened to Sharnalle are simultaneously illegal and the norm.
It does not even seem to have originated in a recognition of failure. If the function of the modern punishment system is to preserve racial and economic hierarchy through brutality and control, then its bureaucracy is performing well. Official language smitheryed to sanction ignorance and preserve privilege is a suit of armor polished to shocking glitter.
It is the language that drinks blood. It is deceptive because those who want largely to preserve the current punishment bureaucracy—by making just enough tweaks to protect its perceived legitimacy—must obfuscate the difference between changes that will transform the system and tweaks that will curb only its most grotesque flourishes.
As a result, they focus public conversation on Burn The Jury - Andrew Coltrane - Sound Test Training margins of the problem without confronting the structural issues at its heart. Theirs is the language that drinks blood.
This is why it is important to understand how they distort the truth. Finally, in Part VIII, I discuss the new generation of directly impacted people, organizers, lawyers, faith leaders, and academics on the libertarian left and right who understand the punishment bureaucracy as a tool of power in service of white supremacy and profit. I sketch some of those principles for their consideration below. We are living in the era of premeditation and the perfect crime. Our criminals. What is a crime?
A society makes choices about what acts or omissions to render worthy of different kinds of punishment. The decision to make something punishable by human caging authorizes the government to treat people in ways that otherwise would be abhorrent. For example, a person walking down the street smoking a cigarette Dead Song - Big Blood - Dead Songs be searched by police.
Choices about what is a crime and what is not are made by politicians and within the economic, social, and racial systems in which politicians exist. As a result, for better or worse, these choices reflect the logic of, promote the legitimacy of, and protect distributions of power within those systems. Their cash makes them Belong - Brian Vander Ark - Angel, Put Your Face On, and charitable organizations providing legal services to low-income dice- wagerers in criminal prosecutions give them philanthropic awards at banquets.
This example is not a quirky outlier. Furthering and legitimating particular distributions of wealth Mark (Original) - Abimaro And The Free - Mark power are pervasive, defining functions of our criminal legal system—not minor, unintended byproducts.
Poverty, for example, is not commonly accepted by American courts as a sufficient excuse for theft of subsistence goods. To charge high interest rates?
To hoard wealth? To decide not to vote? To abuse a family dog? To abuse thousands of pigs to make higher profits from their flesh? To belong to a union? To decline to belong to a union? To refuse to grant mortgages to people of a certain race? To drill for oil? To seize land from indigenous people? To participate in a lynch mob?
To enslave people? To spray carcinogenic chemicals into the ground to release natural gas? To design political boundaries based on race? To run a bank for profit? To refuse to identify oneself to a police officer? To force sex upon a spouse?
To search a person without probable cause? To grow tobacco? To have oral sex with another consenting adult? To hold profits offshore? To expose secret government misdeeds in the media? To dress a certain way? To possess a gun? To possess a hunting rifle ten years after a marijuana conviction? To donate to a foreign charity? To boycott apartheid?
To terminate a pregnancy? The difference in the way the bureaucracy treats someone using cocaine and someone using vodka has no empirical connection to Burn The Jury - Andrew Coltrane - Sound Test Training respective harm caused by those substances or to any analysis of how to prevent addiction to them.
Instead, forces external to well-reasoned policy contribute to definitions of criminality and to decisions about appropriate punishment. The criminal law is not an inviolate repository of right and wrong, but—just like any other policy fashioned in a country as unequal as ours—a tool related to cultural, racial, and economic features of our society. Making it a crime to possess certain substances is a good example.
The expansion and increase in severity of drug laws in the last forty years, as well as the lack of outrage over that punishment for many decades, has been shown to stem from a combination of conscious and subconscious biases and incentives. The history of drug prohibition was influenced by the desire to criminalize conduct associated with particular groups at specific historical moments.
Why does the evidence matter so little to the punishment bureaucracy? The punishment system would change overnight if the vast numbers of young, wealthy, and white drug criminals at private schools and famous universities were harassed and beaten by police in the streets, had their family homes raided at night, were sexually and physically assaulted in prisons, and were confined to live and die in cages. The human costs of the bureaucracy would be evaluated differently if drug searches by undercover police and SWAT teams were as common at Yale University as they are down the street in the low-income neighborhoods of New Haven.
The brutality of separating tens of millions of families from their loved ones—with no empirical evidence of a benefit—would not be tolerated if it were happening to different people. And so the knowledge that laws will be enforced in particular ways against particular people changes what laws powerful people create.
Elites need not worry about creating crimes with harsh punishments if they know that the laws will not be enforced against them. While many of these choices reflect background social, racial, and economic forces, other choices Soul Me - Benny Golson - My Jazz Collection 40 the criminal law are more obvious political calculations.
For example, while politicians decided to make insider trading a crime for ordinary people and private investors, they had also decided, until recently, that insider trading should be legal for members of Congress.
This meant that elite politicians could make millions of dollars based on inside information that they learned through lawmaking or use their control over lawmaking and regulation for personal profit. This political process is also influenced by multibillion-dollar industries with sophisticated marketing and lobbying strategies because many corporations depend on increasing punishment. These interests include pharmaceutical companies lobbying to block marijuana legalization and large meat corporations lobbying to create new felony offenses for videotaping animal abuse at their factories.
Simply put, political power influences what we decide to criminalize. And because political contributions effect voting behavior, groups pay political campaigns and associated entities so that politicians will create laws that benefit those groups. Laws are often passed not because they increase overall well-being, but because politicians need money to stay in power. If a would-be criminal, therefore, has a large amount of money, she can purchase the ability to be viewed as a non-criminal by changing laws.
To be clear, it is appropriate for a political process to make decisions about what a society should punish and what a society should celebrate. The point here is that our criminal laws are not an objective mechanism for increasing overall well-being by efficiently reducing harmful behavior.
Our criminal laws are based on some of the most arbitrary Burn The Jury - Andrew Coltrane - Sound Test Training of human existence, like power, racial bias, and economic self-interest—they reflect our demons, past and present.
How does the legal system choose how harshly to punish speeding, selling various derivatives of the coca plant, domestic assault, sleeping under a bridge, illegally searching someone, Burn The Jury - Andrew Coltrane - Sound Test Training music, committing murder, or tax evasion?
Why are penalties for texting or drinking while driving more lenient than for cocaine possession even though impaired driving is more dangerous? And why are the Where Is The Love - Grover Washington, Jr. - Anthology for the same crimes dramatically lower in other countries? The same forces that determine which conduct is criminal also determine how severely different conduct is punished.
To take Triple Dare - BWB - BWB example, federal law famously treats crack cocaine offenses more harshly than powder cocaine offenses, even though the two substances are pharmacologically identical. For the first seven years that the disparity existed, not a single white person was prosecuted for a crack cocaine offense in seven of the U2 - Unhappy Talk American cities.
Sentencing Commission wanted to remove this disparity because there is no legal or scientific basis for it. Besides determining the severity of punishment, these forces influence the way people are punished. For many decades, white elites in the South used the punishment system to transfer wealth, confiscate land, and preserve racial hierarchy through convict leasing—that is, criminalizing people so that their bodies could be forced to work for profit.
Our society has created other punishments to promote different political interests. That law was first passed for the purpose of reducing the number of black people voting. In addition to being Neon - Eddie Halliwell - DJ Mag Presents Eddie Halliwell and stripped of the right to vote, people are punished in other ways.
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